Repositorio Institucional Digital UNAM

Bienvenidos al nuevo Repositorio Institucional Digital de la UNAM, cuyo objetivo es facilitar y mejorar la visibilidad de la producción científica y académica de la Universidad permitiendo el acceso abierto a sus contenidos y garantizando la preservación y conservación de dicha producción, además de aumentar el impacto del legado Institucional.

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Prediction of Research Project Execution using Data Augmentation and Deep Learning
(2023-05-05) Flores Garcia, Anibal; Tito Chura, Hugo Euler; Zea Rospigliosi, Lissethe
This paper presents the results of seven deep learning models for prediction of research project execution in graduates from a public university in Peru. The deep learning models implemented are non-hybrid: Deep Neural Networks (DNN), Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU), Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) and, hybrid: CNN+GRU, CNN+ LSTM and LSTM+GRU. Since most of the dataset prediction features are of the nominal type (true false), this paper proposes a simple novel data augmentation technique for this type of features. Taking as inspiration the input data type of a neural network, the proposal data augmentation technique considers nominal features as numeric, and obtain random values close to them to generate synthetic records. The results show that most of deep learning models with data augmentation significantly outperform models without data augmentation in terms of accuracy, precision, f1-score and specificity, being the main improvements of 17.39%, 66.67%, 25.00% and 25.00% respectively.
Cashew gum hydrogel as an alternative to minimize the effect of drought stress on soybean
(2024-01-25) Ratke, Rafael Felippe; De Sousa, Alan; Vieira Chaves, Daniela; Zanatta, Fábio Luiz; Loiola Edvan, Ricardo; Rodrigues Sousa, Heldeney; Cavalcanti Silva Filho, Edson; Anteveli Osajima, Josy; Silva Santos Nascimento, Ariane Maria; González Aguilera, Jorge; Zuffo, Alan Mario; Pereira da Silva, Natielly; Teodoro, Paulo Eduardo; Rocha Bezerra, Leilson; Soto Gonzales, Hebert Hernán; Morales Aranibar, Luis
The use of hydrogels helpsthe production of plants in drought-stress environments. Thus, this work evaluated using different hydrogels to minimize drought stress in soybean cultivation. The treatments employed two different hydrogels, one already commercialized and the other produced with cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale), five levels (0, 30, 60, 120, and 240 mg pot−1) of the hydrogels, and two levels of drought stress in sandy soil. The growth and yield of soybeans and the levels of macro- and micronutrients in soybeans were evaluated.growth. The use of CG hydrogel promoted 12% increase in protein content in the seeds in the when soybean plants were subjected to drought stress. The levels of 30 mg pot-1, corresponding to 7.5 kg ha−1, improved the ’morphological and productive parametersof the soybeans. The increasing levels of hydrogel promoted the increase in P, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe and reduced S and Cu on an exponential scale. The use of cashew gum hydrogel increased the K and Ca contents in soybean seeds compared to commercial hydrogel.
Host-Pathogen Interaction: Biology and Public Health
(Springer Nature, 2024) Ponce Cusi, Richard; Bravo, Leny; Paez, Kevin J.; Pinto, Joseph A.; Pilco Ferreto, Nesstor
Host-pathogen interactions play a critical role in the maintenance of biodiversity but can also have significant impacts on public health. In this chapter, the evolution of host-pathogen interactions, their molecular mechanisms, stages of interaction, and the development of pharmacological treatments have been examined. The coevolution of hosts and pathogens has led to the development of complex defense systems and invasion mechanisms. Hosts have evolved strategies to recognize and respond to pathogens, while pathogens have developed strategies to evade or suppress the host response [1]. The search for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying host-pathogen interactions has led to the discovery of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) recognition by host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), the secretion of virulence factors by pathogens to manipulate host signaling pathways, and the activation of adaptive immune responses by the host to target-specific pathogens [2]. Pharmacological treatments have been developed to target various stages of host-pathogen interactions, from preventing infection to treating established disease. However, the emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens poses a significant challenge to the development of effective treatments [3]. The impact of host-pathogen interactions on public health cannot be overstated, with infectious diseases responsible for a significant proportion of global morbidity and mortality. Understanding the mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions and developing effective treatments are essential to mitigate the impact of infectious diseases on global public health.
Exploring a Sustainable Process for Polyphenol Extraction from Olive Leaves
(MDPI, 2024-01-15) Huamán Castilla, Nils Leander; Díaz Huamaní, Karla Syndel; Palomino Villegas, Yolanda Cristina; Allcca Alca, Erik Edwin; León Calvo, Nilton Cesar; Colque Ayma, Elvis Jack; Zirena Vilca, Franz; Mariotti Celis, María Salomé
Olive leaves are residues from pruning and harvesting and are considered an environmental management problems. Interestingly, these residues contain high polyphenol concentrations, which can be used to treat chronic diseases. However, these compounds are a technological challenge due to their thermolability and reactivity during extraction. Thus, this study assessed the use of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with green solvents like water-ethanol and water-glycerol mixtures (0–15%) at 50 °C and 70 °C to yield polyphenol-rich antioxidant extracts with reduced glucose and fructose content. The use of 30% ethanol at 70°C presented the highest polyphenol content (15.29 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight) and antioxidant capacity, which was expressed as IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration): 5.49 mg/mL and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC): 1259 μmol Trolox equivalent/g dry weight, as well as lower sugar content (glucose: 3.75 mg/g dry weight, fructose: 5.68 mg/g dry weight) compared to water–glycerol mixtures. Interestingly, ethanol exhibits a higher degree of effectiveness in recovering flavanols, stilbenes and secoiridoids, while glycerol improves the extraction of phenolic acids and flavonols. Therefore, to enhance the efficiency of polyphenol recovery during the PLE process, it is necessary to consider its solvent composition and chemical structure. Keywords: olive leaves; polyphenols; antioxidant capacity; pressurized liquid extraction; green solvent
Presence and leaching of PAHs in soils of high Andean grasslands affected by intentional burning.
(Elsevier, 2024-05) Vega Quispe, Anyela Pierina; Merma Chacca, Donald Efrain; Maldonado, Ingrid; Colque Ayma, Elvis Jack; Guimarães Guilherme, Luiz Roberto; Jiménez Jiménez, Paúl Andrés; Rivera Campano, Milko Raúl; Ramos Tejeda, José Luis; Zirena Vilca, Franz
Interactions between host and pathogenic microorganisms are common in nature and have a significant impact on host health, often leading to several types of infections. These interactions have evolved as a result of the ongoing battle between the host’s defense mechanisms and the pathogens’ invasion strategies. In this chapter, we will explore the evolution of host-pathogen interactions, explore their molecular mechanisms, examine the different stages of interaction, and discuss the development of pharmacological treatments. Understanding these interactions is crucial for improving public health, as it enables us to develop effective strategies to prevent and control infectious diseases. By gaining insights into the intricate dynamics between pathogens and their hosts, we can work towards reducing the burden of such diseases on society.
Gobierno abierto en municipalidades del Perú como alternativa para generar confianza en los ciudadanos.
(Universidad de Zulia (Luz), 2023) Morales Rocha, José Luis; Coyla Zela, Mario Aurelio; Morillos Valderrama, Santos Octavio; Quispe Mamani, Daniel
La característica de un gobierno abierto es la transparencia, promoviendo la participación y colaboración, con la finalidad de mejorar la calidad de los servicios públicos. El objetivo fue determinar el nivel de influencia de la aplicación del modelo de gestión de gobierno abierto en la confianza de los ciudadanos de las municipalidades del Perú. El estudio es descriptivo y correlacional, con enfoque cuantitativo y tipo de investigación aplicada. La muestra fue probabilística conformado por 319 municipalidades provinciales y distritales, se utilizaron como técnica la observación con una ficha de observación elaborada en Google Forms y la técnica de la encuesta con un cuestionario de Encuesta Nacional de Hogares del Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. La investigación se enfoca en la aplicación de algoritmos de Machine Learning. Se concluye que la confianza de los ciudadanos hacia las municipalidades del Perú esta explicada en un 32.5%, por la implementación del modelo de gestión de gobierno abierto, que influye significativamente en la confianza de los ciudadanos, apoyado en los principios de transparencia, colaboración y participación, que fortalecen la lucha contra la corrupción
Knowledge and Attitudes of Parents about Oral Health in the Primary Dentition Stage in a Peruvian High Andean City
(International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2024-01-30) Rojas Briceño, Nilton Beltrán; Oc Carrasco, Oscar Joel; Silva Díaz, Yshoner Antonio; Ordinola, Carla; Pizarro Salazar, Oscar; Tuesta-Mendoza, Shírley J.; Silva-López, Jhonsy O.
Children’s oral health depends on parents’ knowledge and attitudes. The primary dentition stage, in particular, plays a crucial role in the comprehensive development of children. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate parents’ knowledge and attitudes about oral health in the primary dentition stage in Chachapoyas (Amazonas, NW Peru). A questionnaire was administered to 409 parents from 15 educational institutions, and the data were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. Among the surveyed parents, 75.3% could identify at least one habit harmful to their children’s teeth (such as excessive sugar consumption) and one of its effects (such as dental caries). Additionally, 77.5% reported that their children presented some dental problem, more frequent in the peripheral areas than in the city’s center. Gender (odd ratio, OR = 0.484; p = 0.037), educational level (OR = 2.144; p = 0.043), and type of health insurance (OR = 2.627; p = 0.044) of the parents influenced awareness of taking care of their children’s primary dental health. The geographic location of the school (1.729 < OR < 2.079; p ≤ 0.011) and family income (OR = 3.504; p = 0.028) influenced parents’ identification of the different harmful effects of children’s habits. Factors such as low socioeconomic status and never taking the child to the dentist increased the risk of dental problems (p < 0.05). It is suggested that peripheral areas, like rural areas, lack the same oral health programs and access to treatment as central urban areas, leading to disparities in parental knowledge and attitudes. Keywords: dental caries; dental health; oral habits; preschool; primary teeth; thumb sucking
Assessment of beef sensory attributes and physicochemical characteristics: A comparative study of intermediate versus normal ultimate pH striploin cuts
(Elsevier, 2024-01-05) Patinho, Iliani; Leite Cavalcante, Cecylyana; Saldaña Villa, Erick Manuel; Gagaoua, Mohammed; Behrens, Jorge H.; Contreras Castillo, Carmen J.
The quality of beef, defined by key attributes such as the intrinsic sensory qualities texture, flavour, and juiciness, is shaped by various intrinsic and extrinsic factors. This study conducted a detailed examination of Nellore beef, focusing on two categories based on ultimate pH (pHu) levels: intermediate (pHu ≥ 5.8) and normal (pHu < 5.6) beef. A comprehensive approach was taken, involving twenty trained assessors who applied the Optimised Descriptive Profile (ODP) method to evaluate grilled striploin steak samples. In parallel, consumer preferences were measured through a hedonic test and a Check-all-that-apply (CATA) task, involving 135 participants. The ODP results revealed that the intermediate pHu samples were juicier (P < 0.05) compared to the normal pHu group. The CATA analysis highlighted differences in both intermediate and normal pHu beef, especially in juiciness, a crucial factor for consumer satisfaction. Notably, variations in deoxymyoglobin content linked to ageing were observed, with higher levels at the 3rd day compared to the 28th day, especially in the intermediate pHu samples (P < 0.05). Moreover, colour-related aspects such as L*, b*, chroma (C*), and oxymyoglobin were significantly influenced (P < 0.05) by both the pHu category and ageing time. Regarding consumer acceptance, the study found no significant difference in perception between the intermediate and normal pHu groups (P > 0.05). These findings revealed the complex interactions between pHu levels, sensory characteristics, and consumer preferences in beef quality, offering valuable insights for both the industry and research community.
Diseño e implementación de una maquina clasificadora de paltas por tamaño y color mediante uso de inteligencia artificial.
(Universidad Nacional de Moquegua, 2021-06-17) Vera Ramírez, Oscar John; Zúñiga Incalla, Alex Piter; Yana Mamani, Victor
Perú es actualmente el tercer exportador mundial de aguacates Hass según las últimas estadísticas de FAOSTAT. Para clasificar los aguacates de manera eficiente en tamaño y madurez, se implementó una robusta planta de inteligencia artificial para clasificar las paltas en 5 categorías. Esta técnica de clasificación se diferencia de la clasificación tradicional en que no es invasiva y reduce el daño a la palta mediante la inspección y clasificación manual. La planta comprende el paso de hardware, que consta de cámara Aca2500 Basler, lente HR 2mm / F1, iluminada y la cinta transportadora 1200. El software del PLC step s7: TIA PORTAL (OPC), un algoritmo secuencial, y decisión de red neuronal convolucional en que incluyen los parámetros de selección tamaño y color de la palta. El proceso de clasificación cumple tres etapas principales: adquisición, procesamiento y reconocimiento de imágenes. Para el tratamiento de imágenes se utilizaron redes neuronales convolucionales, obteniendo una precisión de clasificación media del 60% en tiempo real. De los resultados obtenidos, vemos que se puede mejorar la clasificación.
Sistema de losetas bilaminares antisismico retractiles para pavimentos desplazables.
(Universidad Nacional de Moquegua, 2023-10-10) Vera Barrios, Bertha Silvana; Flores Salas, Jorge Luis Tomas; Merma Cruz, Walter; Lazo Alarcon, Luis Antonio; Aguilar Martinez, Jose Amilcar; Santa Cruz Huillca, Maria Elena; Vera Mamani, Gustavo Martin; Catari Condori, Hermenegildo Martin
Este trabajo de investigación demostró que los compuestos cementicios de insumos alternativos al cemento, como la arena artificial,= hierro en polvo= o

Libros Publicados

Retazos de la Historia de Moquegua
El Cambio Climático en los Andes Antiguos
Aves de los Bosques de Queñua de Moquegua